A substance that inhibits oxidation, and is capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation in body tissue.
A type of lymphocyte cell that secretes antibodies into the body's fluids, which ambush foreign cells (antigens) in the bloodstream.
The extent to which a nutrient can be used by the body.
A class of carotenoids. Some carotenes, including alpha-, beta-, gamma- and zeta-carotene, have some pro-vitamin A activity. Others, such as lycopene, do not. Most carotenes are found in yellow-orange fruits and vegetables such as apricots, mangoes, carrots and sweet potatoes. Alpha- and beta-carotene have both been linked to reduced risk of lung cancer. Beta-carotene has also been shown to support heart health.
A large family of colorful plant pigments, many of which act as precursors of
This carotenoid in the xanthophyll group is abundant in red bell peppers, peaches, oranges, tangerines, and yellow corn. Cryptoxanthin has been associated with reduced incidence of cervical cancer.
A complex network of specialized cells and organs that are able to distinguish between self and foreign molecules inside the body, and thus is the system that fights invaders (i.e. bacteria, parasites, viruses).
The ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying harmful foreign substances or organisms.
Specialized lymphocyte cells that attack only specific matching targets.
A carotenoid in the xanthophyll class, abundant in spinach. It is also found in peaches, squash, kale and broccoli. Lutein is found in high concentrations in the eye, and has been shown to protect against blindness caused by macular degeneration. Lutein also helps keep arteries unclogged.
This carotenoid provides the red color in tomatoes, guavas and pink grapefruit. Among the carotenoids, it is the most efficient quencher of singlet oxygen free radicals. Lycopene has been linked with reduced risk of prostate and cervical cancers, as well as supporting cardiovascular health.
A variety of white blood cells (immune cells), that are formed in bone marrow and the thymus. These cells congregate in the lymph nodes and other organs, and travel throughout the body in lymph fluid or the bloodstream.
An essential nutrient that is required by an organism in minute amounts.
natural killer cells
A type of lymphocyte that is capable of attacking any foreign invader in the body with lethal chemicals.
Nutritionally-important compounds found only in plants.
A substance that imparts color to fruits and vegetables, and also materials.
A yellow carotenoid pigment; this class of carotenoids includes oxygenated carotenoids such as lutein, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. High levels of xanthophylls are found in leafy green vegetables, including spinach, kale, Swiss chard and collard greens. Consumption of these vegetables has been linked to a wide range of health benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers.